1. Laparoscopic Ovariectomy
Laparoscopic ovariectomy is a minimally invasive procedure used to remove the ovaries from female dogs. This surgery is performed using a laparoscope, small camera attached to a light source and a long thin tube called a trocar. A small incision is made near the navel where the abdominal muscles are separated. The surgeon inserts the laparoscope into the abdomen and uses the trocar to puncture the skin and muscle layers. Once inside the body cavity, the surgeon removes the ovary by grasping it with forceps inserted through the trocar. After removing the ovary, the surgeon closes the incisions with sutures.
2. Portosystemic Shunt Ligation
Portosystemic shunt ligations are surgical procedures that redirect blood flow away from the liver and back to the heart. They are commonly used to treat portosystemic shunts in dogs. A portosystemic shunt occurs when a vein bypasses the liver and returns blood directly to the heart. When this happens, the liver cannot filter toxins from the blood. As a result, the dog may develop problems related to the buildup of toxic substances in the bloodstream.
Splenectomy is a surgical procedure that removes the spleen. It is often used to treat immune disorders in dogs. The spleen filters red blood cells and white blood cells from the blood. If the spleen does not work properly, the blood will contain too many red blood cells or white blood cells. This condition is known as splenic dysfunction.
4. Laparoscopic Gastropexy
Laparoscopic gastropexy is a surgical procedure that attaches the stomach to the diaphragm. It is commonly used to prevent gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) in dogs. GDV is a life threatening condition caused by twisting of the stomach around its esophagus. During laparoscopic gastropexy, a surgeon makes two small incisions in the abdomen. One incision is placed between the ribs while the second is placed just above the umbilicus. The surgeon then inserts a laparoscope and grasps the stomach with forceps. Using these instruments, he pulls the stomach toward the diaphragm and secures it with staples.